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[By AL CALLOWAYTypically, too many African American political leaders, preachers and so-called intellectuals shy away from the issue of Reparations. As a result, the black body politic has not risen to demand that the U.

S. government, industry, and white Americans in general, deal with rectifying the heinous wrongs experienced both by our enslaved black forebears and present day African American citizens.

In the final analysis, African people throughout the Diaspora are due compensatory justice from the global “white supremacy system/culture” as a result of slavery, colonialism and neo-colonialism. Reparation is always a divisive issue, so be it. We are dealing with crimes against humanity for which justice has to be meted out.

Reparations from Germany built most of Israel’s electrical system, railroad and other infrastructure improvements. Some American tribes have received compensation for crimes against them and now own wealthy casinos and other properties. Japanese Americans got paid for being interred during WW 11. In 2001there was a 10-day “World Conference Against Racism” in Durban, South Africa, attended by black activists, scholars, political and religious leaders from throughout the world.

The Durban conference ended with “the Diaspora United on Reparations.” However, back in America, most civil rights groups continue to side step the Reparations issue in terms of support because it is controversial. What that means is since their hustle is white corporate “gifts” and foundation philanthropy, they have chosen to operate within the status quo, (within the realm of what the white plutocracy approves).

For every Congress since 1989, Congressman John Conyers (D-MI) from Detroit, Michigan has introduced H. R. 40, a bill that would establish a Commission to Study Reparation Proposals for African Americans Act. Interestingly, when Barack Obama became President in 2009 and Conyers got Chairman of the Judiciary Committee and could have introduced H. R. 40 himself, House Majority Leader, Nancy Pelosi talked him out of it for fear it would be to divisive.

(Although a touted so-called liberal, Pelosi is one of the richest members of Congress at the 0.1 percent bracket or wealth in the top one-tenth of the 1 percent of Americans! She is a plutocrat, folks.)

The CARICOM group of fifteen Caribbean nations has instituted a lawsuit against the United Kingdom, France and Holland for Reparations and is being supported throughout the Diaspora. The National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America (N’COBRA) is forever on the case. In 1993 the NAACP endorsed Reparations and stalwarts including activist Callie House, the late Black Nationalist “Queen Mother” Audley Moore and SNCC leader James Forman were early advocates.

If there is a point at which righteousness outweighs avarice and genocide on the scale of justice, then Africans throughout the Diaspora will be made whole. Whether it comes before or after the pending great destruction of WW III matters little. Africans are ordained to survive and thrive. We are the world. All human life throbs within the original human beings, the owners of melanin – the great shield.

While those conditioned to struggle for Reparations through the white man’s labyrinth political maze continue chipping away there, let the rest of us explore an undeniable, clear thrust to the heart of the matter. It is simple and profound. It is a truth that sits there waiting for us to reveal it. It is your last name black people! The white man gave you his last name. Look him up, mostly through the Mormon’s records, Census information, state and county records, like that.

One thing is certain. The progeny of those who enslaved our forebears are right here; yet enjoying the fruits of ill gotten wealth. Let us begin the final stage of the American Revolution: Reparations. Match your last names with plantation owners, records of slave ships, brokers, past presidents of the U. S., signers of the Declaration of Independence and the American Constitution. Check all political officials from before 1619 onward to 1900 (we know they still managed to sneak blacks in here from the Islands or wherever after slavery supposedly ended).

In the June 2014 Atlantic Monthly cover story on Reparations, black author Ta-Nehisi Coates wrote, “America begins in black plunder and white Democracy, two features that are not contradictory but complementary.”


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Replies to This Discussion

Thank you, Mr. Calloway for keeping our fight for "REPARATIONS" ALIVE!!!  

I'd like to add to your list of cruel and heinous SLAVERS, and people will be astonished at this groups participation in the Slave Trade.  It is imperative for Blacks to peruse a book entitled "The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews".  It is a book about White Jewish involvement in promoting the Slave Trade and about them reaping the wealth from it.  

As it has been said, they are the "Mother of Slavers".  And all their acts to enslave Blacks were for a two-fold reason:  to keep us ignorant and destitute and to hide our true identity (Deut. 32:26).  Blacks do not know that we are GOD's Chosen and were cursed into SLAVERY for rejecting HIM for false gods (Lev.26th and Deut.28th Chapters).  But how many Blacks believe this claim enough to check it out?  We should be going to this New-day Pharaoh demanding him to let GOD's People GO to serve HIM, as did our forefathers in Ancient Egypt.  Unbeknownst to the world, we are in another GLOBAL "House of Bondage" from which we must be FREED!

That which is most astonishing about this book, "The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews", is that it is completely documented by White "Jews".  And thanks is due to The Nation of Islam for publishing it and making this information available to us. 

Rise up and wake up, Black People!  Unless we want our progeny to forever be under the control of our CAPTORS, then we must end this status quo that purposely keeps us the "tail" and our enemies the "head" (Deut. 28:44).  With Our True GOD and HIS Righteous we can prevail.

Thanks again, Mr. Calloway for taking the time to speak the truth.  Our Black Lives will never matter so long as we are complacent and do nothing to give credence to ourselves and to our FREEDOM out of this HELL.

Tziona Yisrael


Tiziona: You are blaming the victim! It is not our fault that we were enslaved. That was not a result of God's curse! I certainly don't believe that, and no right-thinking Black person would believe it either.

Anne, please permit me to present my “point of view”.

I greatly appreciate your reply, and my hope is to respond with the GOD’s TRUTH and the facts regarding our history, i.e., the “Old Testament”/Hebrew Scriptures, for therein are the realities for addressing your post. 

I must first reiterate that we have a history; we are descended from the Biblical Israelites.  Our CREATOR GOD of Israel brought us out of Egyptian captivity, and with HIS MIGHTY HAND destroyed the idol worshipping Canaanites and gave us their Land (the Land HE called “Milk and Honey”) – the Land HE renamed the Land of Israel.  Our GOD also gave our forefathers power, gold, silver, and an abundance of farmland with fruit trees, vineyards, oliveyards that were there when they went into the Land, and Our GOD of Israel kept us safe from the wicked nations that surrounded our forefathers.

After all that Our GOD did for our forefathers, the Children of Israel, forsook HIM and turned to other gods.  Countless times, the GOD of Israel caused the Israelites to go into captivity, and each time the Israelites cried unto HIM to SAVE them, HE did (Nehemiah 9th Chapter).  But in the end, the Children of forsook their SAVIOR GOD after all HE had accomplished for them and flatly refused to take heed to abandon their gods.  Finally, when the GOD of Israel saw that our forefathers had it in their hearts to worship other gods, HE cast them from HIS Land and scattered them into the “Four Corners” of the Earth to serve their enemies.  We are the victims who inherited the curses that Our GOD put upon our forefathers.

“IF YE FORSAKE THE LORD, AND SERVE strange gods, then he will turn and do you hurt, and consume you, after that he hath done you good.”   Joshua 24:20

“Thus saith the LORD unto this people, Thus have they loved to wander, they have not refrained their feet, therefore the LORD doth not accept them; he will now remember their iniquity, and visit their sins.”  Jeremiah 14:10

“…WHEREFORE HATH THE LORD PRONOUNCED ALL THIS GREAT EVIL AGAINST US? or what is our iniquity? or what is our sin that we have committed against the LORD our God? Then shalt thou say unto them, BECAUSE YOUR FATHERS HAVE FORSAKEN ME, SAITH THE LORD, AND HAVE WALKED AFTER OTHER gods, and have served them, and have worshipped them, and have forsaken me, and have not kept my law (Ex. 24:12); And ye have done worse than your fathers; for, behold, ye walk every one after the imagination of his evil heart, that they may not hearken unto me: THEREFORE WILL I CAST YOU OUT OF THIS LAND into a land that ye know not, neither ye nor your fathers; and there shall ye serve other gods day and night; where I will not shew you favour.”   Jeremiah 16:10 - 13

“It shall come to pass, IF THOU WILT NOT HEARKEN UNTO THE VOICE OF THE LORD THY GOD, to observe to do all his commandments and his statutes which I command thee this day; that ALL THESE CURSES SHALL COME UPON THEE, AND OVERTAKE THEE:”   Deuteronomy 28:15


“THY SONS AND THY DAUGHTERS SHALL BE GIVEN UNTO ANOTHER PEOPLE, and thine eyes shall look, and fail with longing for them all the day long: and there shall be no might in thine hand.”   Deuteronomy 28:32


“Thou shalt beget sons and daughters, but thou shalt not enjoy them; for THEY SHALL GO INTO CAPTIVITY.”   Deuteronomy 28:41


These passages not only prove our true identity, but they provide reasons as to WHY Our GOD of Israel scattered us from HIS Land into the hands of our enemies to serve them and to worship their fraudulent religions.  Our GOD of Israel gave our forebears exactly what they wanted – other gods!

“The LORD shall scatter thee among all people, from the one end of the earth even unto the other; and THERE THOU SHALT SERVE OTHER gods, which neither thou nor thy fathers have known, even wood and stone.”   Deuteronomy 28:64

“I will go and return to my place, till they acknowledge their offence, and seek my face: IN THEIR AFFLICTION THEY WILL SEEK ME EARLY.   Hosea 5:15

You are obviously not aware, but Blacks around the world in the thousands have already returned back to the GOD of Israel and to HIS Righteous Way of Life – HIS Book of the Law and have abandoned the White Man’s religion.  Moreover, the GOD of Israel has said that HE will gather us out of this captivity.

“For I know the thoughts that I think toward you, saith the LORD, thoughts of peace, and not of evil, to give you an expected end. THEN SHALL YE CALL UPON ME, AND YE SHALL GO AND PRAY UNTO ME, AND I WILL HEARKEN UNTO YOU. AND YE SHALL SEEK ME, AND FIND ME, WHEN YE SHALL SEARCH FOR ME WITH ALL YOUR HEART. AND I WILL BE FOUND OF YOU, SAITH THE LORD: AND I WILL TURN AWAY YOUR CAPTIVITY, AND I WILL GATHER YOU FROM ALL THE NATIONS, AND FROM ALL THE PLACES WHITHER I HAVE DRIVEN YOU, SAITH THE LORD; and I will bring you again into the place whence I caused you to be carried away captive.”   Jeremiah 29:11 - 14

This is our history, and the following is what we can look forward to if we will return back to Our GOD of Israel:

“It shall come to pass, when all these things are come upon thee, THE BLESSING AND THE CURSE, which I have set before thee, and thou shalt call them to mind among all the nations, whither the LORD thy God hath driven thee, And shalt RETURN UNTO THE LORD THY GOD, AND SHALT OBEY HIS VOICE according to all that I command thee this day, thou and thy children, with all thine heart, and with all thy soul; That THEN THE LORD THY GOD WILL TURN THY CAPTIVITY, and have compassion upon thee, and will return and gather thee from all the nations, whither the LORD thy God hath scattered thee. If any of thine be driven out unto the outmost parts of heaven, from thence will the LORD thy God gather thee, and from thence will he fetch thee: And the LORD thy God will bring thee into the land which thy fathers possessed, and thou shalt possess it; and he will do thee good, and multiply thee above thy fathers. And the LORD thy God will circumcise thine heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live.”   Deuteronomy 30:1 - 6

So, you see, we did not just come out of the woodwork and start the Slave Trade.  We were an established NATION with power, but because of our forsaking Our GOD, we were taken into Slavery and for good reason, which Blacks very much need to understand.  When we know the GOD’s TRUTH we can return to the GOD that brought all this HELL upon us.

“The LORD, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt with great power and a stretched out arm, him shall ye fear, and him shall ye worship, and to him shall ye do sacrifice.  AND THE STATUTES, AND THE ORDINANCES, AND THE LAW, AND THE COMMANDMENT, WHICH HE WROTE FOR YOU, YE SHALL OBSERVE TO DO FOR EVERMORE; AND YE SHALL NOT FEAR other gods.”   II Kings 17:36,37

We do not learn these TRUTHS in Church!

Yes, I do blame the victims.  We are in the lands of our enemies because we forsook the CREATOR GOD of Israel, Our ONLY GOD and SAVIOR – the GOD that DELIVERED the Children of Israel out of Egyptian Bondage.  And today too many of us still do not know Our GOD and do not seek to know HIM.  So, yes I do blame the victims.  Nevertheless, it behooves us, victims, to return back to Our GOD before it is too late. 

Again, I thank you for your reply, and I hope I have shed some light on the reasons for this long and painful captivity. 

This has been my point of view,

Tziona Yisrael


Thank you for expressing your point of view, Tzonia. I must say that I disagree. I do not believe that the Old Testament (nor the New Testament either) is "God's word" or "God's Truth". The Bible was written over the centuries by human beings, mainly old Jewish men, and it reflects their point of view about the world and the nature of human beings. They may have believed that slavery is a punishment for those who have fallen away from their image of what God wants, but we don't have to. Blaming the slave for being enslaved is incorrect and immoral. We should be blaming the enslaver, not the slave. Are there any passages in the Old Testament that state that owning another human being is immoral? If not, why not? Please tell me. Don't you think that it is? I don't understand why you would advocate belonging to a religion that teaches us that we are cursed. That is not the kind of religion that I would wish to believe in, nor would I worship such a cruel deity.


You are so correct!  Much of the Bible has been tampered with, especially by the powers-that-be who invented their own White gods and White angels to correlate with their own fabricated religions.  However, without question, “Thus Saith the LORD” that is written throughout the Hebrew Scriptures has been proven to be the GOD’s TRUTH and the WORD of GOD, as each one of GOD’s Prophets details HIS LAW, HIS VOICE, and HIS WORD without tampering and or altering it one iota.  They speak with one consent – nothing like the hundreds of different Christian religions to chose from.  Moreover, there are two incidents in history that have occurred and that provide evidence of our true identity via the curses that fell upon us: 

-The prophecy of the Slave Trade in Leviticus 26th and Deuteronomy 28th Chapters, was fulfilled by Blacks who were forcibly migrated purposefully to fulfill this enslavement at the hands of their enemies.  That was prophesied, and it came to pass and cannot be refuted.  That would prove that not all the Hebrew Scriptures are fictitious.

-The establishment of the Land of Israel, formerly called the Land of Canaan, stands Witness to GOD’s PROMISE to give it to the Children of Israel.

-The fact that Europeans occupy GOD’s Land is also a factor in proving the WORD of GOD.  The people who usurped, occupy, and control the Land of Israel are Europeans, specifically Ashkenazim by their own admission.  Their occupation of the Land of Israel is a direct result of prophecy resulting from our sins against Our GOD of Israel. 

Given the catastrophe of the FLOOD that destroyed everything living except the house of Noah (Genesis 6:5-7), given the complete drowning of the ancient cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, given the destruction of the Canaanite nations, and given the fall of the Black Hebrew Israelite Kingdom of GOD, we learn a great lesson, which is that the CREATOR GOD punishes the wicked for disobedience to HIS WORD and to HIS LAW.  Actually there is something you might accept as truth.

There is no peace, saith the LORD, unto the wicked.”   Isaiah 48:22

“The LORD said, Verily it shall be well with thy remnant; verily I will cause the enemy to entreat thee well in the time of evil and in the time of affliction.”   Jeremiah 15:11

[That would be Reparations for the Slave Trade, just as what was rendered when the Israelites came out of Ancient Egypt (“I will give this people favour in the sight of the Egyptians: and it shall come to pass, that, when ye go, ye shall not go empty:”   Exodus 3:21).]

And the following is something you can watch for, because for sure, it will come to pass:

THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD; Behold, I, even I, will both search my sheep, and seek them out. As a shepherd seeketh out his flock in the day that he is among his sheep that are scattered; so will I seek out my sheep, and will deliver them out of all places where they have been scattered in the cloudy and dark day.  And I will bring them out from the people, and gather them from the countries, and will bring them to their own land, and feed them upon the mountains of Israel by the rivers, and in all the inhabited places of the country.  I will feed them in a good pasture, and upon the high mountains of Israel shall their fold be: there shall they lie in a good fold, and in a fat pasture shall they feed upon the mountains of Israel.  I will feed my flock, and I will cause them to lie down, saith the Lord GOD.  I WILL SEEK THAT WHICH WAS LOST, AND BRING AGAIN THAT WHICH WAS DRIVEN AWAY, and will bind up that which was broken, and will strengthen that which was sick:”   Ezekiel 34:111 - 16

And see that the CREATOR GOD of this Universe will hear your cry if you call upon HIM.

“For I know the thoughts that I think toward you, saith the LORD, thoughts of peace, and not of evil, to give you an expected end. THEN SHALL YE CALL UPON ME, AND YE SHALL GO AND PRAY UNTO ME, AND I WILL HEARKEN UNTO YOU. AND YE SHALL SEEK ME, AND FIND ME, WHEN YE SHALL SEARCH FOR ME WITH ALL YOUR HEART. AND I WILL BE FOUND OF YOU, SAITH THE LORD: AND I WILL TURN AWAY YOUR CAPTIVITY, AND I WILL GATHER YOU FROM ALL THE NATIONS, AND FROM ALL THE PLACES WHITHER I HAVE DRIVEN YOU, SAITH THE LORD; and I will bring you again into the place whence I caused you to be carried away captive.”   Jeremiah 29:11 – 14

And you are right again about “Jews” tampering with the “Old Testament”.  The need arose when they usurped our identity.  However, the MERCIFUL GOD had them leave HIS WORD in tact for us to find it when we came out of enslavement and decided to seek HIM. 

Let me be clear, GOD blames the SLAVER, as well, and they will also be punished for all their wickedness and for the cruel and heinous Slave Trade.

“I was wroth with my people, I have polluted mine inheritance, and given them into thine hand: THOU DIDST SHEW THEM NO MERCY; UPON THE ANCIENT HAST THOU VERY HEAVILY LAID THY YOKE.   Isaiah 47:6

“Ask ye now, and see whether a man doth travail with child? wherefore do I see every man with his hands on his loins, as a woman in travail, and all faces are turned into paleness? Alas! for that day is great, so that none is like it: it is even the time of Jacob's trouble; but he shall be saved out of it. For it shall come to pass in that day, saith the LORD of hosts, that I WILL BREAK HIS YOKE FROM OFF THY NECK, AND WILL BURST THY BONDS, AND STRANGERS SHALL NO MORE SERVE THEMSELVES OF HIM:  But they shall serve the LORD their God, and David their king, whom I will raise up unto them.  Therefore fear thou not, O my servant Jacob, saith the LORD; neither be dismayed, O Israel: for, lo, I WILL SAVE THEE FROM AFAR, AND THY SEED FROM THE LAND OF THEIR CAPTIVITY; AND JACOB SHALL RETURN, AND SHALL BE IN REST, AND BE QUIET, AND NONE SHALL MAKE HIM AFRAID. For I am with thee, saith the LORD, to save thee: THOUGH I MAKE A FULL END OF ALL NATIONS WHITHER I HAVE SCATTERED THEE, YET WILL I NOT MAKE A FULL END OF THEE: but I will correct thee in measure, and will not leave thee altogether unpunished.”   Jeremiah 30:6 – 11

So, you see, Anne, Our GOD will punish our CAPTORS and will make a full end of all nations that scattered us to be their Slaves.

In the Hebrew Scriptures some people desired to be “Servants” (Exodus 21:5) because under GOD’s LAW they must be treated well.  I must also add that the GOD of Israel is totally against OPPRESSORS (Deut.24:14).  Throughout the Hebrew Scriptures (the OT), oppression is one of GOD’s punishments for the wicked in order that they might turn from their sins.  And for sure it is immoral to oppress, degrade, and abuse anyone. 

I have shared with you but a drop in the bucket of my views regarding the Most High GOD, and of a truth I have a lot to share.  Nevertheless, it has been my pleasure.

Again, I appreciate your response and knowing how well we have been so indoctrinated, I understand your views.


Tziona Yisrael

Dear Tziona,

Why are you imposing your religious views on others?  People practice many different religions and each one has its own view.  This kind of prosalitizing turns people off and cuts off meaningful discussion.  Do not be so arrogant to assume that only you know the truth.  We are all seeking truth in own ways. Go in peace.

Thank you, Dr. Sokoya, for your reply, and do know that I take it kindly.

Please accept mine as such, as well.  The Black man is oppressed throughout the "Four Corners of the Earth" by White Slavers, and these are the same people who have fed us their religion - one not mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures or mentioned in the WORD of GOD at the mouth of HIS Prophets.  By the way, not one prophet wrote the "New Testament", and my People need to know this as they worship a god stemming from this Christian Book.  Blacks embrace this faith without question and without researching its true origin.  

One thing we should all realize is that there has got to be something better than this White Man's religion that keeps us under their control rather than under GOD's SALVATION.  There is a GOD, but the White Man kept that a secret from us by promoting every Tom, Dick, Harry, and Jane to preach a so-called "Gospel" that the CREATOR never mentioned and never ordained.  It is time descendants of Slave be the "Dry Bones" who awaken in Ezekiel 37th Chapter and wake up to the GOD's TRUTH.


Tziona Yisrael

Thank you, Tzonia. The information which you have shared with me is very interesting, and I shall find your references in my Bible and read them.

Peace be upon you,


You make my eyes well up, Anne.  Thank you for taking the time to read these passages.  And may the CREATOR GOD Bless you to know HIM.

And I wish you will experience what I have found in this CREATOR GOD in the Hebrew Scriptures.  HE really will respond if you Seek and Call upon HIM.

Peace be upon you, my Sister.

Tziona Yisrael

I Kings 8:23 - 53

See also:

“For I know the thoughts that I think toward you, saith the LORD, thoughts of peace, and not of evil, to give you an expected end. THEN SHALL YE CALL UPON ME, AND YE SHALL GO AND PRAY UNTO ME, AND I WILL HEARKEN UNTO YOU. AND YE SHALL SEEK ME, AND FIND ME, WHEN YE SHALL SEARCH FOR ME WITH ALL YOUR HEART. AND I WILL BE FOUND OF YOU, SAITH THE LORD: AND I WILL TURN AWAY YOUR CAPTIVITY, AND I WILL GATHER YOU FROM ALL THE NATIONS, AND FROM ALL THE PLACES WHITHER I HAVE DRIVEN YOU, SAITH THE LORD; and I will bring you again into the place whence I caused you to be carried away captive.”   Jeremiah 29:11 - 14

9 Devastating Actions White Slave Masters Took to Convert Black People to Christianity

By Curtis Bunn, April 10, 2015

  1. The Promise of Heaven

The most important aspect of Christianity for the enslaved was the promise of heaven — a promise made by plantation owners. This idea preached the notion that for all the suffering that is done in the physical world, your soul will be preserved and you will experience a hardship-free spiritual life, according to Slave Resistance, A Caribbean Study. What this did for enslaved Black people was give them hope for the future. Converted enslaved people’s belief in heaven allowed some to passively resist their plantation owners and focus on the afterlife. With that belief, all of the beatings and lashings meant nothing because in heaven the enslaved person would be rewarded and the master would be punished.

  1. II.         Constant Work

The vigorous, constant plantation work assigned by owners left the enslaved people hardly any time for themselves, and that included religious activities, according to Some plantation owners required the enslaved to work even on Sunday, an intentional move to break them away from their religious regimen and softening them over time to accept whatever religion was presented to them by the plantation owners.

  1. III.         Blocked Communication

Plantation owners separated the enslaved people who spoke the same tribal language so they could not worship together and could be taught Christianity at the same time, according to an article titled The Inconceivable State of African-American Christianity on 

  1. IV.         Separated Families

Moving family members from one another broke down the spirit of the enslaved, as they believed wholeheartedly in worshipping together, according to in a study on the role of religion in Africa. With their family units broken, their African beliefs were broken, too, making them more willing to accepting another religion. 

  1. V.         Demonstration of Power

When Africans were captured and brought to America by the Europeans, they often attributed the Europeans’ power to the power of the Europeans’ God. Therefore, it was often easy for some enslaved Africans to begin to worship the victorious Christian God in place of their own gods. 

  1. VI.         Catholics’ Conversions

Often, African practices were brought into Christianity in new and interesting ways as a way of luring the enslaved into Christianity and away from their religion, according to an article at the Mariners Museum called Captive Passage. Enslaved Africans in Roman Catholic nations often converted easily because of Catholicism’s ability to accommodate and absorb other beliefs.

  1. VII.         Mixing of Religious Practices

Symbols and objects, such as crosses, were conflated with charms carried by Africans to ward off evil spirits. Christ was interpreted as a healer similar to the priests of Africa, according to PBS’ Slavery and the Making of America. In the New World, fusions of African spirituality and Christianity led to distinct new practices among enslaved populations, including voodoo or vodun in Haiti and Spanish Louisiana. Although African religious influences were also important among Northern Black people, exposure to Old World religions was more intense in the South, where the density of the Black population was greater.

  1. VIII.         Missionary Work in West Indies

Missionaries — from the Moravians, the Baptists and the Methodists — all engaged in the process of Christianization in the West Indies, according to an article by Jeffrey K. Padgett titled The Christianization of Slaves in the West Indies. By the middle of the 18th century, Moravian chapels and mission houses were in populated areas of many of the British-controlled islands. Missionaries argued to planters that the enslaved needed religion and that planters also would benefit from the conversion. 

  1. IX.         Social Control

In the Caribbean colonies of Cuba and Saint-Domingue, religion was taught to enslaved Africans as a means of social control more than as a means to edify their souls, according to an article titled Slave Religion in Central and South America. Especially in the colonies’ early days, while the plantations were small and the enslaved population was not huge, plantation owners used religion to teach obedience. In Cuba and Brazil, Catholic saints were often equated with gods from Africa — generating familiarity for the enslaved.

By Curtis Bunn was taken from the Atlantic Black Star ( website



Thank you for a thoughtful article.  Given the events occurring today, it is apparent the the tactics of the Civil Rights Movement are inadequate.  The clock on "Black progress" is now being turned back 50 years or more. Every right that is/was gained by our people can be (and is being) taken away with the stroke of a pen.  We deserve reparations for the suffering that we have endured and continue to endure in this country that was built on the backs of ancestors.  We are entitled to resources to advance our self determination and independence from this system of oppression.  The Black Power Movement was/is right.  We need to build our own institutions, develop our own communities, and stop relying on the perceived goodwill of this country. 

Thank you, Dr.


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